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02 Cells and Tissues 细胞和组织% Q/ H; D* f7 t- K; _) U; Q1 U

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#11 Heart tissue 心脏组织
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在线视频 http://v.youku.com/v_show/id_XNDI3ODU4OTYyNA==.html
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  w. n8 }  _7 B1 N+ mCardiac muscle, which is found only in the heart wall, contracts constantly to pump blood throughout the body.7 ^, j, x6 k) n

6 `( w; e) i! a" X8 ~5 H  q0 N心肌只存在于心脏壁,不断收缩将血液泵到全身。6 O" q/ F5 }% m$ }* A( F& v& P
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The heart wall is composed of three layers. A thin layer called the epicardium, or visceral pericardium, forms the outermost part of the heart wall. This layer adheres the heart to the pericardium, a sac of tissue that protects the heart from friction as it beats. / E* t4 p" H2 {9 ~) v6 L
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心脏壁由三层组织构成。心脏壁的最外层是一薄层,称为心外膜或心包脏层。这一层将心脏粘附于心包。心包是保护心脏跳动时免受摩擦的组织囊。
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Beneath the epicardium lies the thick cardiac muscle of the myocardium. The myocardium is responsible for the heart's pumping action, making powerful, continuous contractions possible. This striated tissue contracts involuntarily in response to signals from the heart's own conduction system. 2 m1 f% I& X4 V7 J4 L# V4 m2 _
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心外膜下面是一层厚心肌,心肌负责心脏的泵送作用,使有力而持续的收缩成为可能。该横纹肌组织对心脏自身传导系统的信号产生反应,不自主地收缩。
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" l1 J/ y) C* c. M# XBeneath the myocardium lies the endocardium, which forms the innermost layer of the heart wall. The endocardium lines the heart's internal structures and is continuous with the lining of blood vessels that attach to the heart.0 c4 U8 o/ |0 N. O1 {) |* h
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心肌下方是心内膜,形成心脏壁的最内层。心内膜衬于心脏内部结构表面,并与连接到心脏的血管内膜相接。8 v7 w# K' K. l/ k) F6 C3 Z
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Together, these three layers of the heart wall aid contraction and relaxation as the heart beats.
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这三层结构一起协助心脏跳动时的收缩和舒张。
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02 Cells and Tissues 细胞和组织0 e  d8 K  [( h) @$ ?3 ]
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( s! @5 I+ [. A4 z7 j, A. A#12 Smooth Muscle Tissue 平滑肌组织
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在线视频 http://v.youku.com/v_show/id_XNDI4MDU5NzQyOA==.html; d8 t4 U4 l+ i( [8 ~

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# l4 X9 h6 I/ A. mSmooth muscle tissue is in the walls of hollow organs throughout the body. The tissue contracts and relaxes to contain substances and move substances through the body. Smooth muscle contractions are involuntary actions managed by impulses that travel through the autonomic nervous system to the smooth muscle tissue. The arrangement of cells in smooth muscle tissue provides for contraction and relaxation with great elasticity.
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平滑肌组织位于全身中空器官壁内。平滑肌组织通过收缩和松弛容纳物质,并将物质输送到全身。平滑肌的收缩是非自主活动,受通过自主神经系统传递到平滑肌组织的冲动的调节。平滑肌组织中的细胞排列,为收缩和舒张提供了很大弹性。
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3 C' _+ I9 q% @# [The smooth muscle in the digestive tract contracts and relaxes in peristaltic waves that move swallowed food and nutrients from the mouth, through the stomach and the intestines.
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/ G7 r& ?6 B/ G" ~% o9 E平滑肌在消化道以蠕动波收缩和松弛,推动从嘴巴吞下的食物和营养物质,通过肠胃;5 e/ K$ V: D" d+ E
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Artery walls include smooth muscle that relaxes and contracts, as pressure changes move changing volumes of blood through the vessel.- S) B/ K8 d7 y- R+ W' Y8 E4 f
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动脉壁含有平滑肌,当压力变化时,平滑肌松弛和收缩,改变血管内血液体积;
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  t5 o1 B6 y2 e* HThe smooth muscle of the bladder and uterus allow for great elasticity and contraction of those organs.
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膀胱和子宫的平滑肌使这些器官具有很大弹性和收缩作用。0 p+ ~) A2 s1 E. V
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02 Cells and Tissues 细胞和组织
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#13 Neurons 神经元
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- l& |  r; D7 p  WStructures of the nervous system transfer messages throughout the body. Specialized nervous system cells called neurons make this messaging possible. At one end of a neuron are dendrites that receive a messaging signal. In the neuron's axon, a chain reaction moves the message to the synapse, where the signal is transferred.5 o( g9 T$ m. H8 S% q& G1 c  _
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神经系统的结构向全身传递信息,被称为神经元的特殊神经系统细胞,使传递消息成为可能。神经元的一端是接收消息信号的树突。在神经元中的轴突,通过连锁反应将信息传递到突触,突触将信号转化。9 V. f( M  |9 \. D

% w8 L7 q. U% KBefore this process begins, the neuron is polarized with a net positive charge outside the neuron and a negative charge inside. As the signal passes along the axon, the membrane depolarizes and repolarizes again, passing positive charges in and then back out. The depolarizing signal creates a chain reaction that passes in a wave along the axon.
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) Q* d1 c: E1 m在此过程开始前,神经元处于极化状态。神经元外为正电荷,而神经元内为负电荷。当信号沿轴突传递时,膜去极化并再次复极,正电荷进入膜内,随后又排回膜外。去极化信号产生连锁反应,以波浪形式沿轴突传递。5 ]/ q6 ?$ @0 G0 c* v1 [- I1 |% z

% E% I$ m; F0 ]2 b- b) A4 _$ YWhen the signal reaches the axon terminal, chemical synapses trigger the release of neurotransmitters. These chemicals travel across a small space and activate another neuron.
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3 W6 z9 Q" K6 V. i" ^, {% d; L# \当信号到达轴突终端,化学突触引发神经递质释放。这些化学物质穿过一小间隙,并激活另一个神经元。
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; R9 I6 F7 C8 r" nOr, they can transfer the signal to tissue, like muscle, and create an action.
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# D9 ]# ^' M; C它们也可以将信号传递到组织,如肌肉,进而产生动作。" l1 ]# b) I9 j3 R: S

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载点 https://pan.baidu.com/s/1dKqFRavRe4pTXIEK_TnxnQ8 V  i# w. J5 h- Y& Z: Z1 B. Y
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02 Cells and Tissues 细胞和组织' c& _, C, F+ O% J+ S; X$ g

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) k% A! d; Q/ B/ a# z* F#14-15 Sex Cells 生殖细胞/ ^% m9 a  G# {: h& S6 L

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#14 Male Sex Cells  男性生殖细胞
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The testes constantly produce sperm − the male sex cells. Production begins within the seminiferous tubules where stem cells, called spermatogonia, develop into immature sperm.2 v% s4 ~; k2 t: z% R* |3 I8 U, R

$ _& H3 F4 T. K, R# y% B  F睾丸不断产生男性的生殖细胞,即精子。精子的产生开始于细曲精管内,被称为精原细胞的干细胞发育为不成熟的精子。
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Each 46-chromosome spermatogonium divides through mitosis to produce primary spermatocytes.
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( u; R2 \! n) j$ R, h通过有丝分裂,每个含有46条染色体的精原细胞分裂产生初级精母细胞。
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' q! \9 D% v3 }: e) i! k  UThese cells divide by meiosis to become 23-chromosome cells called secondary spermatocytes then spermatids.  l; U( g9 @. F- e
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这些细胞通过减数分裂变成含23条染色体的细胞,称为次级精母细胞,然后形成精子。/ k5 u" U8 |1 ^- a# y+ c% w
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This multistep process, called spermatogenesis, produces the 23-chromosome immature sperm cells that mature in the epididymis.
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: E" w( T" A0 H. l" [0 e: W. r这一多步骤过程称为精子发生,产生含23条染色体的未成熟精子细胞,在附睾发育成熟。: F+ N# U" r- c4 Y8 D

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#15 Female Sex Cells  女性生殖细胞
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$ f" f) c* z: E1 P* d7 D6 qThe ovaries produce secondary oocytes − the female sex cells., u* t2 ?6 M, C  j+ m2 ^/ d& Q2 T

' S+ O# V! Y) ]7 }卵巢产生二级卵母细胞,即雌性生殖细胞。/color]: q+ g: q9 ~  }4 J) o

4 {3 Z, f9 l- a' M& h1 z' z: QDuring fetal development stem cells, called oogonia, go through mitosis. Some of these cells develop into 46-chromosome primary oocytes.
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在胚胎发育过程中,被称为卵原细胞的干细胞进行有丝分裂,其中一部分发育成含46条染色体的初级卵母细胞。$ ]6 [) v; K2 L6 F3 p% M5 ]  E- ^: A

: J4 k% \2 d) q$ x, dAt the onset of female puberty tens of thousands of primary oocytes each form part of a primordial follicle in the ovaries. Between menarche and menopause, each primordial follicle develops into a mature follicle and its primary oocyte completes meiosis I. Some primary oocytes become secondary oocytes − 23-chromosome cells that begin meiosis II, then pause.
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在女性青春期,数以万计的初级卵母细胞一个个分别在卵巢形成原始卵泡的一部分。在月经初潮和绝经期之间,每一个原始卵泡发展为成熟的卵泡,其内的初级卵母细胞完成减数分裂I,一些初级卵母细胞开始减数分裂II,变成含23条染色体的次级卵母细胞,然后暂停。$ w0 W! t" A" a
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Each month one secondary oocyte is released into the uterine tube. Meiosis II is completed when the oocyte is fertilized. The resulting ovum can develop into a zygote.
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: ~+ _9 `0 m" Q, }每个月有1个次级卵母细胞被释放到子宫内。卵母细胞受精时,减数分裂II完成,由此产生的卵子可以发育成受精卵。
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载点 https://pan.baidu.com/s/1SIu3gA9UdRkBesS3VFzNSA% Z# G  N% |$ O9 I3 z9 l) F

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02 Cells and Tissues 细胞和组织
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#16 Fetal Development 胎儿发育7 {6 _4 i) U+ U

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At the start of the embryonic period, the developing cells continue to differentiate.
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胚胎期开始时,发育中的细胞继续分化。. O* d7 D* v9 j* k/ U, ]# X- T; l8 w1 ^
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By the fourth week of development the embryo has developed into an oblong body that further develops limbs, vertebrae, and organs." U* C& {3 m; R# \% Q3 d
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第4周的胚胎已经发育成为一个椭圆形的主体,进一步发育出四肢、椎骨和器官。, G+ ]- W  p% J  X% u
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By week 10 the embryo is a fetus. Growth is supplied by nutrient-rich blood passing from the placenta through the umbilical cord.
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6 B7 R& r, Q% m0 C. M第10周时,胚胎变为胎儿。富含营养的血液经脐带从胎盘而来,供应其生长。
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Over the course of about 9 mouths − or 36 weeks − bones, muscles, skin, and connective tissue form, body systems develop, and limbs and facial features take shape.
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/ z5 P5 E2 A4 O  e, Z大概在9个月即36周内,形成骨骼、肌肉、皮肤和结缔组织,身体系统发育,四肢和五官初具形状。
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3 y, s; M  S0 p9 n7 d. z载点 https://pan.baidu.com/s/1e5wRMge8_JvgwNEZ4MJytQ( N: o& v5 ^5 M3 k* l
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02 Cells and Tissues 细胞和组织( i( s, w5 {4 \1 x3 \
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#17-18 Bone Formation 骨的形成* X5 O. v& Z3 i  C6 z* [% @1 ]

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#17 Flat bone formation  扁平骨的形成
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- _; c: R$ f' ~0 w9 VThe development of the skeleton's flat bones begins as certain mesenchymal cells, at specific points within embryonic fibrous connective tissue, develop into osteoblasts.
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骨架的扁骨发育始于某些间质细胞。在某个特定时间内,胚胎内纤维结缔组织中的这些间质细胞发育成骨细胞。
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& h" I3 I& m- t* s  rThe osteoblasts cluster together, secrete bone matrix, and develop into osteocytes that deposit calcium and other mineral salts that harden the forming bone matrix.
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$ T" C0 K0 T2 J成骨细胞簇在一起,分泌骨基质,并发育成骨细胞,将钙和其他矿物盐沉积硬化,形成骨基质。
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The bony regions spread out into thin columns called trabeculae, and form spongy bone tissue. A fibrous covering called the periosteum forms on the surface of the bone, and a layer of compact bone tissue replaces the upper layers of spongy bone.
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7 J4 u# ]9 k8 v* \7 o. C, {骨区散开成细柱,称为小梁,形成海绵状骨组织。骨的表面形成纤维状覆盖物,称为骨膜,致密的骨组织层替换骨松质的上层。
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5 A0 [# E& C' c/ kThis process in which flat bones develop from connective tissue is called intramembranous ossification.
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结缔组织发育成扁骨,这一过程称为膜内骨化。
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#18 Long bone formation  长骨的形成
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During embryonic development cells called chondroblasts begin secreting cartilage that develops in the shape of the skeleton's long bones. The blueish, transparent, avascular tissue formed is called hyaline cartilage. As the cartilage grows, the chondroblasts in the interior calcify and die.
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: b+ ~# c/ H% V/ H! a. c在胚胎发育期间,软骨细胞开始分泌软骨,发育成骨骼长骨形状。这种微蓝色、透明、含血管的组织称为透明软骨。随着软骨生长,内部的软骨钙化而死亡。
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Blood vessels penetrate the structure and deliver osteoblasts. These cells lay down bone material. As the cartilage ossifies and spongy bone forms, a medullary cavity develops.# s  G* u9 C+ [1 q$ t

- g5 b0 s9 p3 @' x4 v血管透入软骨结构,带来成骨细胞,成骨细胞使骨化物质沉积。随着软骨骨化和松质骨的形成,出现了骨髓腔。
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At the ends of a long bone ossification from cartilage also occurs. This process in which hyaline cartilage becomes bone and grows is called endochondral ossification.$ ^, Q  f  n" ]0 Y

$ y6 y% q8 ^" M! H6 j在长骨两端也发生软骨骨化。透明软骨变成骨并生长的过程,称为软骨内骨化。
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Bone growth continues through childhood. After puberty, bone tissue replaces the remaining hyaline cartilage, and the shaft reaches its adult length.
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* @. G, |; p: f) v8 N整个童年骨骼都在生长。青春期后,骨组织替换剩余透明软骨,且轴达到成人的长度。# B" g# L4 B( R& t  P) I

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载点 https://pan.baidu.com/s/1VfsZTrcn6YDbUq8_8rbxKg
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02 Cells and Tissues 细胞和组织1 H1 {0 F  H9 h# ~, O4 I8 `8 J8 e
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9 ]2 w1 T/ X7 J" O#19 Bone Repair 骨修复
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+ M; d# L! L. M6 EA fractured bone bleeds. Bone repair begins as over a period of hours blood at the fracture site clots and forms a hematoma.& B; r2 X! O- U# ?  h3 r" W+ z
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骨折出血,数小时内开始修复。血液在骨折部位凝固成血肿。3 W- ^( w; w( r' U' j% ~7 u
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The healing begins as osteoclasts in the area remove dead bone tissue, while fibroblasts penetrate the area and build a fibrocartilaginous callus that bridges the broken bone.
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愈合开始时,骨折部位的破骨细胞清除坏死骨组织,同时成纤维细胞渗透进入,并形成纤维软骨痂,连接骨头断端。
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Over many weeks osteoblasts transform the callus into bone. Continued remodeling and the mechanical stress put on the bone creates and shapes new bone.
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1 a! E- {+ [' Q2 g) w数星期后,成骨细胞将痂转化为骨。不断的重塑和机械应力产生并塑造了新骨。
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8 _! `' I5 i/ ZOver a period of months or years the bone regains its original strength, shape, and internal structure.
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数月或数年后,骨恢复了其原有的强度、形状和内部结构。# Q# D4 V7 \, ]# u
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载点 https://pan.baidu.com/s/1KxDjCdgsxD_DByrLJamLSQ
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02 Cells and Tissues 细胞和组织5 @# t2 Q& E5 [6 c% U) q9 H

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#20 Soft Tissue Repair 软组织修复! p8 ?6 ^6 ]. `# ~; x# X$ m& ?
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在线视频 http://v.youku.com/v_show/id_XNDI4MTI4MTMzNg==.html& u4 o& T& e/ K% W$ t* z2 B0 d2 n4 D
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, N) k& a( H* y6 m6 _Soft tissue organs in the body repair injury through a multistep process that begins as platelets from torn vessels work to form a meshlike clot that prevents blood loss.
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( v  d3 i. P" n! B身体软组织器官损伤的修复需通过多个步骤,从血小板在血管撕裂处形成血凝块,防止失血开始。
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Inflammation in the area occurs as tissue repair begins in the damaged area. Mast cells release histamine that dilates blood vessels and increases blood flow to the repair site. White blood cells called neutrophils and macrophages work to consume bacteria and remove damaged tissue and debris.
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受损部位开始修复时,便会发生炎症。肥大细胞释放组织胺,扩张血管,增加修复部位的血流。嗜中性粒细胞和巨噬细胞的白细胞,清除细菌、受损组织和碎片。4 k; I! Q7 x7 H4 ]0 k3 y) Q- S

" W9 m! r  @5 D7 i/ v. P) |As bacteria and dead cells are removed, the proliferative phase of wound-healing begins. Fibroblasts build new tissue by secreting collagen that takes the shape of the original tissue.
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( z; V, v7 u4 O4 s' Q细菌和死细胞被除去后,伤口愈合的增生期便开始。成纤维细胞通过分泌胶原蛋白形成新组织,具有原来组织的形态。
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During remodeling, the final phase of wound healing, the tissue created by fibroblasts matures and regains its normal function.
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$ X, c" X+ I( I; A7 Q: ~在重塑阶段,即伤口愈合的最后阶段,由成纤维细胞产生的组织变成熟,并恢复其正常功能。0 Z- P. O1 t9 i! ?& e" s

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载点 https://pan.baidu.com/s/19mG4tzK7D2DwQSMlYzn3Fw
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02 Cells and Tissues 细胞和组织
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$ s% J) R! a# e9 y! F* d, S#21 Phagocytes 吞噬细胞
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! b6 Q# Y+ w- I# M" a. l9 XWhen bacteria or other pathogens are present in the body, certain white blood cells categorized as phagocytes consume the microorganisms to protect the body from infection.
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当细菌或其他病原体进入体内时,某些白细胞即巨噬细胞,会吞噬微生物,保护人体免受感染。
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The process of consuming the pathogen begins when the phagocyte is attracted to chemicals from the pathogen, and through receptors, binds to it. The phagocyte ingests the microbe, encasing it in a compartment called a vacuole.
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5 _6 V6 t$ _9 j( |对病原体的吞噬始于巨噬细胞被病原体的化学物质吸引,通过受体与之结合。巨噬细胞摄取微生物,将其包裹在液泡中。
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Lysosomes in the phagocyte merge with the vacuole. Its enzymes then kill and digest the pathogen, and release any indigestible remains from the cell./ N6 \7 {+ p* `  M

0 A8 ~# V: j$ G5 d" v" W巨噬细胞内的溶酶体与液泡融合,溶酶体的酶杀死并消化病原体,并将无法消化的残渣释放出细胞外。- h& b8 @8 i! w# g2 w8 v# I) _
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The cell process, called phagocytosis, protects the body by removing pathogens.
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该过程称为吞噬作用,通过消除病原体保护身体。
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* {# r$ q. u- L3 W# t9 G载点 https://pan.baidu.com/s/1ipfPXMc-zon-4kSl5t_jTA
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